Energy Management System

Energy Management System aims to provide smarter ways to monitor, control, and save energy for residential, commercial, and industrial organisations. The implementation and adoption of a robust management model using smart devices would conduct efficient sustainable energy usage.

Current Scenario

Electricity consumption in Bhutan is currently measured using two types of electrical energy meters; ‘electromechanical induction type’ and ‘electronic energy type’ meters. Currently, BPC assigns large numbers of people to manually read this energy meter, making it a tedious and inefficient task. According to the Population & Housing census of Bhutan report 2017, Thimphu has 25,644 households in total. The number has been growing exponentially every year. Each household consumes an average of 4500kWh per year and spends BTN 1200 during winter months and BTN 600 during summer months on electricity. Looking at the average energy consumption by the individual households, it is important to look for a solution to optimize energy usage and become an energy efficient city.

Problems

  • The electrical energy meters connected to buildings in Thimphu are vulnerable to various energy meter tampering. For example, phase and neutral interchange, partially or fully earth condition, neutral disturbance, bypassing meter (electricity theft), and more. All these opportunities for tampering will result in non-technical energy losses due to bill manipulations.
  • Bhutan still follows conventional methods of having the meter reader visit  every house to read meters and issues bills. In manual reading, the possibility of human error is large and therefore leaves room for inaccuracy. There is an increase in the number of customers. This is due to the rapid development of residential housing estates, commercial premises, industries, etc. Therefore, this process is becoming increasingly time consuming and costly.
  • The lack of supervision of electrical energy consumption at the household level causes issues. We are not able to understand the fundamental parameter determining the health of the electrical system of a building. This includes three phase load balancing and power quality. These are important to monitor because three phase electrical load balancing and the power quality depends on the load connected to the grid and vice versa.

Solution

The energy requirements of cities are complex and abundant. In consequence, modern cities should improve present systems and implement new solutions in a coordinated way and through an optimal approach by profiting from the synergies among all these energy solutions. The intermittency of renewable sources and the increasing demand represent important energy challenges and the electric energy management system in smart cities is the solution to address these modern city issues. Therefore, a model incorporating modern technology for energy management is necessary to intervene in this conventional energy management system. In order to address issues in terms of electric energy management, four main energy-related activities that have been called ‘intervention areas’ can be proposed: Generation, Storage, Infrastructure and Facilities.

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